The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent increase in data supporting the use of androgen ablation early in the clinical course for patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. We systematically reviewed recent publications that report on the use of androgen deprivation (AD) in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients from the 2003 and 2004 procedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the 2003 and 2004 procedings of the American Urological Association as well as published literature from 2003 to 2005. Five recently published mature randomized trials of AD plus local therapy were evaluated plus two large data sets on the use of AD for patients with serologic relapse after local therapy. Four mature randomized studies demonstrate an overall survival benefit to the use of AD in conjunction with definitive local therapy (three with radiation and one with surgery). One retrospective analysis suggests that AD administered early after serologic progression improves overall survival, and one retrospective analysis shows a reduction in metastasis-free survival but has not yet shown an overall survival benefit. For patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer with high-risk features, as well as those for serologic relapse, the use of AD before the development of metastatic disease is supported by long-term outcomes from a series of clinical trials. Consideration of AD is therefore warranted early in the clinical course of high-risk patients.