The purpose of this study was to use multilevel modeling to compare the effects of KPALS alone and combined with goal setting and reinforcement to a control condition on early numeracy performance of 96 kindergarteners. Demographic variables were examined as moderators. Results differed according to early numeracy measure, with both versions of KPALS outperforming the control group for number identification, while KPALS plus goal setting and reinforcement improved performance on missing number and the TEMA-3. Demographic variables, but not treatment, accounted for performance on a measure of quantity discrimination. Posttest differences were found for TEMA-3 and NI, but no differences persisted at 4 months follow-up.
- Early numeracy