Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare inherited lysosomal disorder caused by deficiency of the α-L-iduronidase enzyme, resulting in the progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which interfere with the normal function of multiple tissues and organs. The clinical phenotype includes characteristic facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, umbilical and inguinal hernias, progressive cognitive deficits with corresponding hydrocephalus, and neuropathology. Untreated children do not survive into the second decade. The common cardiac phenotype seen in MPS I and other MPS types includes valve thickening and dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, coronary artery disease, and cardiomyopathy—usually seen later in the disease course. A 15-month-old ex-35-weeker who presented with cardiomyopathy and left ventricular failure at the age of three weeks is presented here. Early evaluation and diagnosis with the help of newborn screening (NBS), followed by treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), resulted in improvement of his cardiopulmonary status. In MPS I, an early cardiac phenotype is uncommon. Based on the evidence from the literature review for early neonatal cardiac phenotype, we propose that all infants with abnormal newborn screening for MPS I should receive cardiac screening with echocardiogram and NT-proB-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during the initial evaluation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the patient, their family, and all physicians involved in our patient’s care.
© 2022 by the authors.
- Hurler syndrome
- MPS IH
- enzyme replacement therapy
- hematopoietic stem cell transplant
- newborn screening
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Case Reports
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't