Early Impairment of Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Responsiveness, and Insulin Clearance in Youth with Stage 1 Type 1 Diabetes

Alfonso Galderisi, Antoinette Moran, Carmella Evans-Molina, Mariangela Martino, Nicola Santoro, Sonia Caprio, Claudio Cobelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


CONTEXT: Clinical onset of type 1 diabetes (Stage 3 T1D) is preceded by a presymptomatic phase characterized by multiple islet autoantibodies with normal glucose tolerance (Stage 1 T1D).

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the metabolic phenotypes of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity and clearance in normoglycemic youth with Stage 1 T1D and compare them with healthy nonrelated peers during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

METHODS: Twenty-eight lean youth, 14 with ≥2 islet autoantibodies (cases) and 14 healthy controls underwent a 3-hour 9-point OGTT with measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and insulin. The oral minimal model was used to quantitate β-cell responsiveness (φtotal) and insulin sensitivity (SI), allowing assessment of β-cell function by the disposition index (DI=φtotal×SI). Fasting insulin clearance (CL0) was calculated as the ratio between the fasting insulin secretion rate (ISR) and plasma insulin levels (ISR0/I0), while postload clearance (CL180) was estimated by the ratio of AUC of ISR over the plasma insulin AUC for the 3-hour OGTT (ISRAUC/IAUC). Participants with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or any OGTT glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dL were excluded.

RESULTS: Cases (10.5 years [8, 15]) exhibited reduced DI (P < .001) due to a simultaneous reduction in both φtotal (P < 0.001) and SI (P = .008) compared with controls (11.5 years [10.4, 14.9]). CL0 and CL180 were lower in cases than in controls (P = .005 and P = .019).

CONCLUSION: Presymptomatic Stage 1 T1D in youth is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and lower β-cell responsiveness, and the presence of blunted insulin clearance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2660-2669
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.


  • Prediabetes
  • insulin sensitivity
  • islet autoimmunity
  • oral minimal model
  • type 1 diabetes
  • β-cell function


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