BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) frequently complicates allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (allo-HCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT).
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed risk factors and outcomes of CDI occurring within 30 days of transplant.
RESULTS: Between March 2010 and June 2015, 466 allo-HCT and 1454 SOT were performed. The CDI cumulative incidence (95% CI) was 10% (8-13) and 4% (3-5), following allo-HCT and SOT, respectively (p < .01), occurring at a median (range) 7.5 days (1-30) and 11 (1-30), respectively (p = .18). In multivariate analysis, fluoroquinolones use within 14 days pre-transplantation was a risk factor for CDI following allo-HCT (HR 4.06 [95% CI 1.31-12.63], p = .02), and thoracic organ(s) transplantation was a risk factor for CDI following SOT (HR 3.03 [95% CI 1.31-6.98]) for lung and 3.90 (1.58-9.63) for heart and heart/kidney transplant, p = .02. Compared with no-CDI patients, the length of stay (LOS) was prolonged in both allo-HCT (35 days [19-141] vs. 29 [13-164], p < .01) and SOT with CDI (16.5 [4-101] vs. 7 [0-159], p < .01), though not directly attributed to CDI. In allo-HCT, severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred more frequently in patients with CDI (33.3% vs. 15.8% without CDI, p = .01) and most aGVHD (87.5%) followed CDI. Non-relapse mortality or overall survival, not attributed to CDI, were also similar in both allo-HCT and SOT.
CONCLUSIONS: Early post-transplant CDI is frequent, associated with fluoroquinolones use in allo-HCT and the transplanted organ in SOT, and is associated with longer LOS in both the groups without difference in survival but with increased aGVHD in allo-HCT.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- Clostridioides difficile infection
- allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant
- risk factors
- solid organ transplant
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article