Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, detected in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are associated with thrombosis, pregnancy loss and thrombocytopenia. Studies have shown that aPL are thrombogenic in vivo, but the mechanism-(s) involved are not completely understood. Several studies have demonstrated that aPL antibodies activate endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, as determined by up-regulation of adhesion molecules: E-selectin (E-sel); intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and in vivo. The objectives of these study were to determine the effects of aPL antibodies on the expression of E-selectin on ECs, on the adhesion of mono-cytes to ECs and to study the role of E-selectin on aPL antibodies enhanced thrombus formation and activation of ECs in vivo. We demonstrated that the surface expression of E-selectin on HUVEC by ELISA was increased 400-fold when treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and 421-fold when treated with aPL antibodies during 4 h. APL antibodies also induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). APL antibodies increased significantly the number of adhering leukocytes to ECs in vivo in C57BL/ 6 J mice when compared to IgG-NHS treated mice. This effect was abrogated in E-selectin-deficient mice. The thrombus size was significantly increased in C57BL/6 J mice treated with aPL antibodies when compared to mice treated with IgG-NHS. This enhancement in thrombus size by aPL antibodies was abrogated in E-selectin-deficient mice treated with aPL antibodies.
- Activation of endothelial cells
- Antiphospholipid antibodies
- Antiphospholipid syndrome