Multiple risk factors have a causative relationship to the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is clear that dyslipidemia plays a central role. The chain of evidence is strongest for elevated levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). An inverse association has also been demonstrated between levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its principal apolipoprotein, A-1, and risk of CHD. Elevated levels of fasting triglyceride (TG) also are a predictor of CHD, but the independent contribution of TG is difficult to prove because of its usual association with reduced levels of HDL-C; elevated levels of small, dense, highly-atherogenic LDL particles; and the metabolic syndrome. Elevated fasting levels of non—HDL-C (TC — LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B also are strongly predictive of the risk of CHD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are important adjuncts to pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia. The purpose of this article is to review these contributions with an emphasis on dietary habits (particularly lipid intake), weight management, and aerobic exercise.
- blood lipids
- coronary heart disease