Although the neurological basis of dyslexia has long been assumed, little direct evidence documents a relation between deviations in brain morphology and behavioral correlates of dyslexia. This article reviews two sources of evidence. Results of CT/MRI studies suggest that in the brains of dyslexics there is an increased incidence of symmetry in the region of the planum temporale and parietooccipital cortex that may be associated with language delay and handedness. Postmortem/cytoarchitectonic studies document symmetry of the plana, provide evidence of thalamic involvement, and chart widely distributed focal dysplasias preferentially involving the left frontal, left temporal, and right frontal regions. Methodological deficiencies characterize this literature, however, particularly regarding the diagnosis of dyslexia, appraisal of handedness and neurolinguistic deficits, and a failure to provide evidence that this pattern of involvement is unique to the dyslexic syndrome. These findings are discussed as they relate to neurobiological theory.