Granular cratering is a ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in various natural and industrial contexts. Although impact-induced granular cratering has been extensively studied, fewer experiments have been conducted on granular cratering via low-energy explosions. Here, we study the dynamics and scaling of explosion granular cratering by injecting short pulses of pressurized air in quasi-two-dimensional granular media. Through an analysis of the dynamics of explosion processes at different explosion pressures, explosion durations, and burial depths, we identify two regimes, the bubbling and the eruption regimes, in explosion granular cratering. Our experiments explore the distinctive dynamics and crater morphologies of these regimes and show the energy scaling of the size of explosion craters. We compare high-energy and low-energy explosion cratering as well as explosion and impact cratering in terms of their energy scalings. Our work illustrates complex granular flows in explosion cratering and provides new insights into the general scaling of granular cratering processes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank F. Japardi, W. Teddy, and J. Wang for the help with experiments. The research was supported by NSF CAREER DMR-1452180. L. P. V. thanks the support of Capes and CNPq through its program Science Without Borders during her stay at UMN. L. G. was partially supported by Conicyt FCHA/Postdoctorado Becas Chile 74160007 and Conicyt PAI/IAC 79160140.
© 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers
- energy scaling
- explosion craters
- granular cratering
- granular flows
- granular jets