Dynamic emulation using an indirect control input

Rong Zhang, Andrew G. Alleyne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


This paper presents a generalized framework to analyze and design controllers for a class of dynamic emulation systems. This class of systems features some structurally distinctive control frameworks which inherently limit the available bandwidth for dynamic emulation. The primary focus in on control structures that we define as indirect. This means the signal from the controller does not affect the physical plant directly; it interacts in combination with other exogenous signals to affect a behavior on the physical system interacting with the emulated load. It is shown that the achievable closed-loop performance is limited in a unique way: the high-frequency response of the controlled closed-loop system converges to the dynamics of the open-loop physical plant that is interacting with the emulated load. This paper illustrates the three controller configurations of the indirect emulation and gives guidelines on how to improve the performance within the identified structural limitations. The three configurations are: a feedback design measuring plant output only, a feedforward design measuring an exogenous signal, and a two degree-of-freedom design combining feedback and feedforward measurements. A detailed analysis in the frequency domain is used to support the experimental results illustrated on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) system. The demonstration case is a highbandwidth transient dynamometer to emulate rapidly varying loads associated with an earthmoving vehicle powertrain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-124
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes


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