Dubduba syndrome: Non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia

G. M. Al-Ghamdi, A. A. Al-Naeem, A. Wuenschmann, U. Wernery, M. Al-Dubaib, A. M. Al-Swailem, M. Hamouda, E. Al-Yamani, M. Shehata, D. A. El-Lithy, O. M. Mahmoud, A. M. Al-Mujali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A neurologic disease in 5 camels in Saudi Arabia is described. These camels of various breeds, Mejaheem, Omani and Wedheh, were 3 to 10 years old. Camels had a history of depression, reduced appetite and separation from the flock. On presentation, they had signs of head shaking, tremor, ataxia, wry neck and lateral recumbency. Postmortem examination showed congestion of the heart, liver and brain. A mild to marked non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis was detected histologically. In addition, Purkinje cell necrosis with neuronophagia was present. Immunohistochemistry failed to detect evidence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus, West Nile virus, Rabies virus, Equine herpesvirus, Influenza A virus, Canine distemper virus, Feline herpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum. The clinical presentation of these cases indicates a potentially novel camelid disease. The histological findings appear to be most consistent with a viral encephalitis. Future studies are aiming at identifying new cases of this disease. Clinical, epidemiological and postmortem investigation with special attention to serologic and more virologic work appear to be necessary to identify the cause of the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-23
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Camel Practice and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 1 2009


  • Camel
  • Dromedary
  • Dubduba syndrome
  • Meningoencephalomyelitis
  • Saudi Arabia


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