Dual-mode ultrasound phased arrays for image-guided surgery

Emad S. Ebbini, Hui Yao, Ajay Shrestha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


A 64-element, I MHz prototype dual-mode array (DMUA) with therapeutic and imaging capabilities is described. Simulation and experimental results for the characterization of the therapeutic operating field (ThxOF) and imaging field-of-view (IxFOV) for a DMUA are given. In addition, some of the special considerations for imaging with DMUAs are given and illustrated experimentally using wire-target arrays and commercial, quality-assurance phantoms. These results demonstrate what is potentially the most powerful advantage of the use of DMUAs in image-guided surgery; namely, inherent registration between the imaging and therapeutic coordinate systems. We also present imaging results before and after discrete and volumetric HIFU-induced lesions in freshly-excised tissues. DMUA images consistently show changes in echogenicity after lesion formation with shape and extent reflecting the actual shape of the lesion. While changes in echogenicity cannot be used as an indicator of irreversible HIFU-induced tissue damage, they provide important feedback on the location and extent of the expected lesion. Thus, together with the self-registration property of DMUAs, lesion images can be expected to provide immediate and spatially-accurate feedback on the tissue response to the therapeutic HIFU beams. Based on the results provided here, the imaging capabilities of DMUAs can add unique features to other forms of image guidance, e.g. MRI, CT and diagnostic ultrasound.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-82
Number of pages18
JournalUltrasonic Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2006


  • Cancer ablation
  • HIFU
  • Harmonic imaging
  • Image compounding
  • Noninvasive surgery
  • Thermal surgery


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