Prion diseases (PrD) are unique neurodegenerative conditions with sporadic, genetic, and infectious etiologies. The agent responsible for these pathologies is a misfolded conformation of the prion protein (PrP). Although a process of autocatalytic “conversion” is known to mediate disease transmission, important gaps still remain regarding the physiological function of PrP and its relevance to pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating neurotoxicity and transmission, and the PrP conformations responsible for neurotoxicity. New Drosophila models expressing mammalian PrP have revealed physiological insight into PrP function and opened the door to significant progress in prion transmission and PrP neurotoxicity. Importantly, flies expressing human PrP showing a robust eye phenotype will allow performing genetic screens to uncover novel mechanisms mediating PrP neurotoxicity.