Drawing on air

Input techniques for controlled 3D line illustration

Daniel F Keefe, Robert C. Zeleznik, David H. Laidlaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present Drawing on Air, a haptic-aided input technique for drawing controlled 3D curves through space. Drawing on Air addresses a control problem with current 3D modeling approaches based on sweeping movement of the hands through the air. Although artists praise the Immediacy and intuitiveness of these systems, a lack of control makes it nearly impossible to create 3D forms beyond quick design sketches or gesture drawings. Drawing on Air introduces two new strategies for more controlled 3D drawing: one-handed drag drawing and two-handed tape drawing. Both approaches have advantages for drawing certain types of curves. We describe a tangent preserving method for transitioning between the two techniques while drawing. Haptic-aided redrawing and line weight adjustment while drawing are also supported in both approaches. In a quantitative user study evaluation by illustrators, the one and two-handed techniques performed at roughly the same level and both significantly outperformed freehand drawing and freehand drawing augmented with a haptic friction effect. We present the design and results of this experiment, as well as user feedback from artists and 3D models created in a style of line illustration for challenging artistic and scientific subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1067-1080
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Air
Tapes
Drag
Friction
Feedback
Experiments

Keywords

  • Artistic interface
  • Bimanual interaction
  • Haptics
  • Modeling
  • Tape drawing

Cite this

Drawing on air : Input techniques for controlled 3D line illustration. / Keefe, Daniel F; Zeleznik, Robert C.; Laidlaw, David H.

In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 13, No. 5, 01.09.2007, p. 1067-1080.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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