Drag bit/rock interface laws for the transition between two layers

Arviandy G. Aribowo, Roeland Wildemans, Emmanuel Detournay, Nathan van de Wouw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper extends bit/rock interface laws for drag (PDC) bits, originally formulated for homogeneous rocks, to the transition between two rock layers with distinct mechanical properties. It formulates a set of relations between the weight-on-bit, the torque-on-bit, the depth-of-cut per bit revolution, and the engagement parameter of the bit in the lower rock layer. This model enables us to extend the 2D E−S diagram for the homogeneous case to a 3D E−S diagram for the transitional case, where the third dimension is related to the engagement parameter. Moreover, this model is used to derive an expression for the drilling efficiency for the transitional phase. Examples are provided for describing the 3D E−S diagram and drilling efficiency under the condition of quasi-stationary drilling (i.e., constant angular velocity, constant weight-on-bit). These examples show that the drilling efficiency depends nonlinearly on the bit engagement between the two rock layers. This intrinsic dependency is closely related to the bit shape.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104980
JournalInternational Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study is supported by the Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP) of the Republic of Indonesia (Grant No. PRJ-4653/LPDP.3/2016 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


  • Cutting process
  • Drilling
  • Drilling efficiency
  • Drilling strength
  • E–S diagram
  • Frictional contact
  • Specific energy
  • Transitional phase


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