The d4 family of transcription factors consists of three members in mammals. DPF1/neuro-d4 is expressed mainly in neurons and the peripheral nervous system, and is important for brain development. DPF2/requiem/ubi-d4 is expressed ubiquitously and presumably functions as an apoptotic factor, especially during the deprivation of trophic factors. DPF3/cer-d4 is expressed in neurons and in the heart, and is important for heart development and function in zebrafish. In Drosophila, there is only one member, dd4, whose function is still unknown, but it is expressed in many tissues and is particularly abundant in the brain of developing embryos and in adults. Here, we present DPFF-1, the only member of this family of proteins in the nematode C. elegans. DPFF-1 is similar to its mammalian homolog DPF2/requiem/ubi-d4 because it is ubiquitously expressed during embryogenesis and in adult tissues, and because it is important for the induction of germ cell apoptosis during stress. Here, we show that dpff-1 null mutant animals produce less progeny than wild-type nematodes, presumably due to meiotic defects. Gonads of dpff-1 deficient animals showed more germ cells in pachytene and overexpressed the P-MPK-1 signal. Additionally, these animals presented higher levels of p53-induced germ cell apoptosis than wild-type animals. Furthermore, we observed that dpff-1 deficient animals are more sensitive to heat shock. This is the first report showing that the d4 family of transcription factors could be involved in meiosis and stress protection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
NIH Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, Grant Number: P40 OD010440; National BioResource Project for the Experimental Animal “Nematode C. elegans,” Tokyo, Japan; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT-México); Grant Number: 103856-Q, 220987; Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT-UNAM), Grant Number: IN207412, IN207415
The authors thank Drs. Erik M. Jorgensen, C. Frøkjær-Jensen, and G. Hollopeter for kindly providing technical advice and reagents. They also thank Dr. Barth Grant for kindly providing the RME-2 antibody. Some strains were provided by the CGC, which is funded by the NIH Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (P40 OD010440) and by the National BioResource Project for the Experimental Animal “Nematode C. elegans,” Tokyo, Japan. They also thank the WormBase release WS252 (Dec 04, 2015) for gathering information and making it available. A.E.V.C. is a doctoral student from the Pro-grama de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, UNAM, and received fellowship 335767 from CONACyT. A.E.V.C. received additional financial support from the Programa de Apoyo a los Estudios de Posgrado (PAEP) program and PAPIIT-UNAM (IN207412 and IN207415). This work was supported by grants from Consejo Nacio-nal de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT-México) (103856-Q and 220987) and from Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT-UNAM) (IN207412 and IN207415).
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- C. elegans