Double- and Triple-Duty Caregiving Men: An Examination of Subjective Stress and Perceived Schedule Control

Nicole DePasquale, Steven H. Zarit, Jacqueline Mogle, Phyllis Moen, Leslie B. Hammer, David M. Almeida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Based on the stress process model of family caregiving, this study examined subjective stress appraisals and perceived schedule control among men employed in the long-term care industry (workplace-only caregivers) who concurrently occupied unpaid family caregiving roles for children (double-duty child caregivers), older adults (double-duty elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers). Survey responses from 123 men working in nursing home facilities in the United States were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Results indicated that workplace-only and double- and triple-duty caregivers’ appraised primary stress similarly. However, several differences emerged with respect to secondary role strains, specifically work–family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intentions. Schedule control also constituted a stress buffer for double- and triple-duty caregivers, particularly among double-duty elder caregivers. These findings contribute to the scarce literature on double- and triple-duty caregiving men and have practical implications for recruitment and retention strategies in the health care industry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)464-492
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Applied Gerontology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Nicole DePasquale, MSPH, is a doctoral candidate in human development and family studies at the Pennsylvania State University and a pre-doctoral fellow funded by the National Institute on Aging. Her program of research evaluates the work, family, and health implications of multiple role occupancy, and specifically focuses on middle-aged adults who combine different work and family caregiving roles.

Funding Information:
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was conducted as part of the Work, Family & Health Network (, which is funded by a cooperative agreement through the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Grants U01HD051217, U01HD051218, U01HD051256, and U01HD051276), National Institute on Aging (Grant U01AG027669), Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Grants U01OH008788, U01HD059773). Grants from the William T. Grant Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Administration for Children & Families have provided additional funding. This work was also supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award F31AG050385 to Nicole DePasquale. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of these institutes and offices.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


  • double-duty care
  • men in long-term care
  • perceived schedule control
  • stress process model of family caregiving
  • triple-duty care


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