Objective: To compare health maintenance procedure rates of Medicare patients with different levels of disability. Study Design: Observational study analyzing data from the 1995 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS, n = 15,590). Self-reported Pap smears, mammograms, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations were compared between groups with different levels of health-related difficulties in six activities of daily living (ADL). Results: Compared to those without disabilities, the most severely disabled women (limitations in 5 or 6 ADL) reported fewer Pap smears (age ≤70, 23% vs 41%, p < .001) and mammograms (age ≥ 50, 13% vs 44%, p < .001). In a controlled analysis, individuals with this high level of disability were 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33% to 72%) and 56% (95% CI, 43% to 76%) less likely to report receiving Pap smears and mammograms, respectively, compared with able-bodied women, regardless of their age, whether they were in an HMO, or whether they lived in a long-term care facility. Functional limitations were not a deterrent to receiving vaccinations. In general, patients in HMOs reported more procedures than those in fee-for-service, while those in long- term care facilities reported fewer procedures than those living in the community. Conclusions: Disability among Medicare patients is a significant, independent risk factor for not receiving mammograms and Pap smears. Efforts should be made to identify the most severely disabled because they are at particular risk.