This study examined the longitudinal relation between math attitudes and math anxiety in first grade (Mage = 6 years, 10 months) and mathematics achievement in fourth grade (Mage = 9 years, 11 months) for 155 Black and Latinx children. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed an inverse relation between math attitudes and math anxiety in first grade for boys and girls. Although there were no mean differences in math anxiety between boys and girls, there was a significant difference in its longitudinal relation with mathematics achievement: for girls, but not boys, first grade math anxiety negatively predicted fourth grade mathematics achievement, controlling for earlier achievement. Math anxiety longitudinally contributes to minoritized girls' long-term mathematics achievement. Teachers should be knowledgeable about the relation between math anxiety and math attitudes and be more responsive to Black and Latinx girls' mathematical learning needs to provide them equitable opportunities to be successful in mathematics.
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- Math anxiety
- Math attitudes
- Mathematics achievement