The replication of DNA in the eukaryotic cell cycle is one of the most highly regulated events in cell growth and division. Biochemical studies on the replication of the genome of the small DNA virus simian virus 40 (SV40) have resulted in the identification of a number of DNA replication proteins from human cells. One of these, Replication Protein A (RPA), was phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, beginning at the onset of DNA replication. RPA was phosphorylated in vitro by the cell cycle-regulated cdc2 protein kinase. This kinase also stimulated the unwinding of the SV40 origin of DNA replication during initiation of DNA replication in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which cdc2 kinase may regulate DNA replication. Functional homologues of the DNA replication factors have been identified in extracts from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling a genetic characterization of the role of these proteins in the replication of cellular DNA. A cellular origin binding protein had not been characterized. To identify proteins that function like T antigen at cellular origins of DNA replication, we examined the structure of a yeast origin of DNA replication in detail. This origin consists of four separate functional elements, one of which is essential. A multiprotein complex that binds to the essential element has been identified and purified. This protein complex binds to all known cellular origins from S. cerevisiae and may function as an origin recognition complex.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Pages (from-to)||147-156; discussion 156-160|
|Journal||Ciba Foundation symposium|
|State||Published - 1992|