We investigated the hypothesis that the strength of the activation of the intra-S DNA damage checkpoint varies within the S phase. Synchronized diploid human fibroblasts were exposed to either 0 or 2.5 J m-2 UVC in early, mid- and late-S phase. The endpoints measured were the following: (1) radio-resistant DNA synthesis (RDS), (2) induction of Chk1 phosphorylation, (3) initiation of new replicons and (4) length of replication tracks synthesized after irradiation. RDS analysis showed that global DNA synthesis was inhibited by approximately the same extent (30 ± 12%), regardless of when during S phase the fibroblasts were exposed to UVC. Western blot analysis revealed that the UVC-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) on serine 345 was high in early and mid S but 10-fold lower in late S. DNA fiber immunostaining studies indicated that the replication fork displacement rate decreased in irradiated cells at the three time points examined; however, replicon initiation was inhibited strongly in early and mid S, but this response was attenuated in late S. These results suggest that the intra-S checkpoint activated by UVC-induced DNA damage is not as robust toward the end of S phase in its inhibition of the latest firing origins in human fibroblasts.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2014 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Photobiology.