Diversity and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)

Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, James J. Li, Caroline Balling, Cassandra Brandes, Edward Bernat, Cassandra L. Boness, Miriam K. Forbes, Kelsie T. Forbush, Keanan J. Joyner, Robert F. Krueger, Holly F. Levin-Aspenson, Giorgia Michelini, Eunyoe Ro, Lauren Rutter, Kasey Stanton, Jennifer L. Tackett, Monika Waszczuk, Nicholas R. Eaton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirically based, hierarchical model of the structure of psychopathology that was created in response to the limitations of traditional, categorical psychiatric classification frameworks. The HiTOP model has become increasingly popular in clinical psychology and psychiatry since its publication in 2017. In this Review, we consider the applicability of the HiTOP model to diverse, underrepresented and epistemically excluded populations. We first review the philosophy underlying psychopathology research in general to understand the impact of scientific norms on the inclusion of diverse populations within the research canon. We then review the HiTOP approach to modelling psychopathology, and how diverse populations have been included within HiTOP-related research to date. We conclude by highlighting ways for future research to increase the applicability of the HiTOP framework to diverse populations. Seriously engaging with the HiTOP model’s suitability for diverse, underrepresented and epistemically excluded populations is imperative in order to achieve the HiTOP consortium’s goal of delineating a fully empirical classification of psychopathology, and to provide a model that can guide the field of psychopathology research and training to increase representation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-495
Number of pages13
JournalNature Reviews Psychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023

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© 2023, Springer Nature America, Inc.


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