Distribution of zeptomole-abundant doxorubicin metabolites in subcellular fractions by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

Adrian B. Anderson, Chanda M. Ciriacks, Kathryn M. Fuller, Edgar Arriaga

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46 Scopus citations

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment of NS-1 mouse hybridoma cells results in the formation of zeptomole amounts of metabolites per cell that are difficult to determine by confocal microscopy or HPLC. The native fluorescence of DOX and its metabolites together with laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) has previously been used to detect a maximum of four components. In this study, we use capillary electrophoresis with postcolumn LIF (CE-LIF) to separate and detect 12 components attributed to DOX metabolism, resulting from treatment of NS-1 cells with 25 μM DOX for 8 h. The so-called metabolites 8 and 10 have been identified as doxorubicinone (DOXone) and 7-deoxydoxorubicinone (7-deoxyDOXone), respectively, by comigration with the corresponding synthetic standard. Due to comigration of DOX with doxorubicinol (DOXol), the presence of DOXol had to be determined separately by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The rest of the metabolites remain unidentified and are referred to by their number assignment. In comparison with the whole cell lysate, fractionation by differential centrifugation results in a better separation resolution of metabolites due to reduced amounts of metabolites in each fraction. This approach was chosen to compare the distribution of 13 metabolites in three subcellular fractions that form a pellet at < 1400g, 1400-14000g, and > 14000g and that generically are enriched in nuclei, organelles (mitochondria and lysosomes), and cytosolic components, respectively. The most abundant metabolite, DOXol, was estimated to be 90 ± 15, 18 ± 2, and 60 ± 12 amol/cell (n = 5) in the nuclear-enriched, organelle-enriched, and cytosole-enriched fractions, respectively. In contrast, the total amount of other metabolites in a given fraction varied from 0 to 1300 zmol. 7-DeoxyDOXone is the only metabolite that was present at similar levels in the three fractions. Other salient observations are metabolites 3, 7, and 11 are not detectable in the nuclear-enriched, organelle-enriched, and cytosole-enriched fractions, respectively; metabolite 9 and DOXone are more abundant in the nuclear-enriched fraction than in the other two fractions. The observations presented here suggest that subcellular fractionation followed by CE-LIF could be a powerful diagnostic for monitoring drug distribution, which is highly relevant to DOX cytoxicity studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-15
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Volume75
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

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