Distribution of blood flow during exercise after blood volume expansion in swine

K. I. Norton, M. D. Delp, M. T. Jones, C. Duan, D. R. Dengel, R. B. Armstrong

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To study the distribution of blood flow after blood volume expansion, seven miniature swine ran at high speed (17.6-20 km/h, estimated to require 115% of maximal O2 uptake) on a motor-driven treadmill on two occasions: once during normovolemia and once after an acute 15% blood volume expansion (homologous whole blood). O2 uptake, cardiac output, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and distribution of blood flow (with radiolabeled microspheres) were measured at the same time during each of the exercise bouts. Maximal heart rate was identical between conditions (mean 266); mean arterial pressure was elevated during the hypovolemic exercise (149 ± 5 vs. 137 ± 6 mmHg). Although cardiac output was higher and arterial O2 saturation was maintained during the hypervolemic condition (10.5 ± 0.7 vs. 9.3 ± 0.6 l/min), O2 uptake was not different (1.74 ± 0.08 vs. 1.74 ± 0.09 l/min). Mean blood flows to cardiac (+12.9%), locomotory (+9.8%), and respiratory (+7.5%) muscles were all elevated during hypervolemic exercise, while visceral and brain blood flows were unchanged. Calculated resistances to flow in skeletal and cardiac muscle were not different between conditions. Under the experimental conditions of this study, O2 uptake in the miniature swine was limited at the level of the muscles during hypervolemic exercise. The results also indicate that neither intrinsic contractile properties of the heart nor coronary blood flow limits myocardial performance during normovolemic exercise, because both the pumping capacity of the heart and the coronary blood flow were elevated in the hypervolemic condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1578-1586
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1990


  • arterial pressure
  • cardiac output
  • coronary blood flow
  • muscle blood flow
  • supramaximal exercise


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