During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation, three different forms of nucleocapsid (NC) protein-NCp15 (p9 + p6), NCp9 (p7 + SP2) and NCp7-appear successively. A mutant virus expressing NCp15 shows greatly reduced infectivity. Mature NCp7 is a chaperone protein that facilitates remodeling of nucleic acids (NAs) during reverse transcription. To understand the strict requirement for NCp15 processing, we compared the chaperone function of the three forms of NC. NCp15 anneals tRNA to the primer-binding site at a similar rate as NCp7, whereas NCp9 is the most efficient annealing protein. Assays to measure NA destabilization show a similar trend. Dynamic light scattering studies reveal that NCp15 forms much smaller aggregates relative to those formed by NCp7 and NCp9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that the acidic p6 domain of HIV-1 NCp15 folds back and interacts with the basic zinc fingers. Neutralizing the acidic residues in p6 improves the annealing and aggregation activity of NCp15 to the level of NCp9 and increases the protein-NA aggregate size. Slower NCp15 dissociation kinetics is observed by single-molecule DNA stretching, consistent with the formation of electrostatic inter-protein contacts, which likely contribute to the distinct aggregate morphology, irregular HIV-1 core formation and non-infectious virus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Institutes of Health (NIH) [GM065056 to K.M.-F., GM072462 to M.C.W.]; National Science Foundation [MCB-1243883 to M.C.W.]; National Cancer Institute, NIH, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. [HHSN261200800001E to R.J.G., in part]. Funding for open access charge: NIH GM065056. Conflict of interest statement. None declared.