Distance perception in NPR immersive virtual environments, revisited

Lane Phillips, Brian Ries, Victoria Interrante, Michael Kaeding, Lee Anderson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

22 Scopus citations


Non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) is a representational technique that allows communicating the essence of a design while giving the viewer the sense that the design is open to change. Our research aims to address the question of how to effectively use non-photorealistic rendering in immersive virtual environments to enable the intuitive exploration of early architectural design concepts at full scale. Previous studies have shown that people typically underestimate egocentric distances in immersive virtual environments, regardless of rendering style, although we have recently found that distance estimation errors are minimized in the special case that the virtual environment is a high-fidelity replica of a real environment that the viewer is presently in or has recently been in. In this paper we re-examine the impact of rendering style on distance perception accuracy in this virtual environments context. Specifically, we report the results of an experiment that seeks to assess the accuracy with which people judge distances in a non-photorealistically rendered virtual environment that is a directly-derived stylistic abstraction of the actual environment that they are currently in. Our results indicate that people tend to underestimate distances to a significantly greater extent in a co-located virtual environment when it is rendered using a line-drawing style than when it is rendered using high fidelity textures derived from photographs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - APGV 2009
Subtitle of host publicationSymposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization
Number of pages4
StatePublished - Nov 27 2009
EventAPGV 2009: Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization - Chania, Crete, Greece
Duration: Sep 30 2009Oct 2 2009


OtherAPGV 2009: Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization
CityChania, Crete


  • Head mounted displays
  • Non-photorealistic rendering
  • Spatial perception
  • Virtual environments

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