Parameters of 24-h rhythm in intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed in patients with stable or advanced primary open-angle glaucoma (S-POAG/A-POAG) and referenced to the phase of ‘marker’ circadian temperature rhythm of each patient. Body temperature and IOP were measured over a 72-h span in 115 participants (65 S-POAG and 50 A-POAG). Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) damage was assessed by high-definition optical coherence tomography. The 24-h IOP rhythm in A-POAG patients peaked during the night, opposite to the daytime phase position in S-POAG patients (p < 0.0001). The 24-h IOP phase correlated with RGC loss (p < 0.0001). The internal phase shift between IOP and body temperature gradually increased with POAG progression (p < 0.001). Angiotensin converting enzyme Alu-repeat deletion/insertion (ACE I/D) emerged as a candidate gene polymorphism, which may play a role in the alteration of the circadian IOP variability in advanced glaucoma. To conclude, a reliable estimation of the 24-h rhythm in IOP requires the degree of RGC damage to be assessed. In advanced POAG, the 24-h phase of IOP tended to occur during the night and correlated with RGC loss, being progressively delayed relative to the phase of temperature.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant number 19-015-00329.
- Angiotensin converting enzyme gene
- Intraocular pressure
- Optical coherence tomography
- Retinal ganglion cells