Disparities in Osteoporosis Prevention and Care: Understanding Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Dynamics

Naoko Onizuka, Takeshi Onizuka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: Osteoporosis, the most prevalent metabolic bone disease, significantly impacts global public health by increasing fracture risks, particularly among post-menopausal women and the elderly. Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to enhanced fragility. The disease is predominantly diagnosed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and is significantly influenced by demographic factors such as age and hormonal changes. This chapter delves into the condition's complex nature, emphasizing the pervasive gender and racial disparities in its screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent Findings: Recent findings highlight a substantial gap in the management of osteoporosis, with many individuals remaining under-screened and under-treated. Factors contributing to this include the asymptomatic early stages of the disease, lack of awareness, economic barriers, and inconsistent screening practices, especially in under-resourced areas. These challenges are compounded by disparities that affect different genders and races unevenly, influencing both the prevalence of the disease and the likelihood of receiving adequate healthcare services. Summary: The summary of this chapter underscores the urgent need for targeted strategies to overcome these barriers and improve health equity in osteoporosis care. Proposed strategies include enhancing public and healthcare provider awareness of osteoporosis, broadening access to diagnostic screenings, and integrating personalized treatment approaches. These efforts aim to align with global health objectives to mitigate the impacts of osteoporosis and ensure equitable health outcomes across all demographic groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2024.


  • Ethnic disparities
  • Gender differences
  • Healthcare inequality
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoporosis screening and treatment
  • Racial disparities


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