Objective: To examine long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk disparities by sexual identity using a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Methods: Data include participants in wave 4 (2008/09; ages 24-34. years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (7087 females; 6340 males). Sexual identity was self-reported (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly homosexual, homosexual) and a Framingham-based prediction model was used to estimate participants' risk of a CVD event over 30. years. Differences in CVD risk by sexual identity, relative to heterosexuals, were calculated with linear regression models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, and financial distress. Results: Average 30-year CVD risk was 17.2% (95% CI: 16.7, 17.7) in males and 9.0% (95% CI: 8.6, 9.3) in females. Compared to heterosexual females, mostly heterosexual (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.4) and mostly homosexual females (2.8%; 95% CI: 0.8, 4.9) had higher CVD risk. Bisexual and homosexual females had higher but not statistically significant CVD risk compared to heterosexuals. Among males, differences in CVD risk by sexual identity were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Sexual identity was associated with CVD risk in sexual minority subgroups. Population- and clinic-based prevention strategies are needed to minimize disparities in subsequent disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Cari Jo Clark was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH Award Number 8UL1TR000114-02/KL2TR000113 and grant number R03HD068045 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development . Additional support was provided by the Program in Health Disparities Research and the Applied Clinical Research Program at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Susan A. Everson-Rose was supported in part by grant 1P60MD003422 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities and by the Program in Health Disparities Research and the Applied Clinical Research Program at the University of Minnesota. Julia M. Przedworski was additionally supported by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Education and Career Development Program under award number R25CA163184 . Study sponsors had no role in study design; collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; writing the report; or the decision to submit the report for publication. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
© 2015 Elsevier Inc.
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- Cardiovascular diseases
- Health status disparities