Disorders of sexual development and common reproductive pathologies

Brenda Griffin, Sara White, Margaret V. Root Kustritz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Over the course of their practice, the high-quality high-volume spay-neuter (HQHVSN) surgeon can expect to see a number of unusual presentations of patient sex resulting from various disorders of sexual development (DSDs), as well as a variety of reproductive tract pathologies that may also be discovered at the time of spay-neuter surgery. This chapter reviews the embryonic process of sexual determination and differentiation and discusses the clinical findings associated with various DSDs. DSDs include abnormalities of chromosomal sex, abnormalities of gonadal sex and abnormalities of phenotypic sex. Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY) is the most commonly reported sex chromosome abnormality in dogs and cats. Bilateral castration is recommended for all cryptorchid dogs and cats. Uterine abnormalities are uncommonly encountered in veterinary medicine, but have been identified in many species, including cats and dogs. Ectopic fetuses in dogs and cats typically result from uterine rupture during pregnancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHigh-Quality, High-Volume Spay and Neuter and Other Shelter Surgeries
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781119646006
ISBN (Print)9781118517208
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


  • Bilateral castration
  • Chromosomal sex
  • Disorders of sexual development
  • Ectopic fetuses
  • Gonadal sex
  • High-quality high-volume spay-neuter
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • Phenotypic sex
  • Spay-neuter surgery


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