Direct numerical simulation is used to study passive scalar transport and mixing in a round turbulent jet, in a laminar crossflow. The ratio of the jet velocity to that of the crossflow is 5.7, the Schmidt number of the scalar is 1.49, and the jet-exit Reynolds number is 5000. The scalar field is used to compute entrainment of the crossflow fluid by the jet. It is shown that the bulk of this entrainment occurs on the downstream side of the jet. Also, the transverse jet entrains more fluid than a regular jet even when the jet has not yet bent into the crossflow. The transverse jet's enhanced entrainment is explained in terms of the pressure field around the jet. The acceleration imposed by the crossflow deforms the jet cross-section on the downstream side, which sets up a pressure gradient that drives downstream crossflow fluid toward the jet. The simulation results are used to comment on the applicability of the gradient-diffusion hypothesis to compute passive scalar mixing in this flow field. Computed values of the eddy diffusivity show significant scatter, and a pronounced anisotropy. The near field also exhibits counter gradient diffusion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CTS– 0133837. Computer time was provided by The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) and the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC). We thank Professors Su and Mungal for making their data available, and for several useful discussions.