The modification responsible for the long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) that follows a brief conditioning period is not known. To elucidate this change, we have resolved quantal levels of transmission before and after induction of LTP. We find an increase both in the number of quanta released and in quantal amplitude, consistent with combined pre- and postsynaptic modifications. On average, about 60% of LTP can be accounted for by presynaptic enhancement. The increase in either quantal amplitude or quantal content varies significantly among different experiments, but is inversely correlated with its initial value. These results may help to reconcile the different views concerning the site of LTP expression.