Direct delivery and fast-treated Agrobacterium co-culture (Fast-TrACC) plant transformation methods for Nicotiana benthamiana

Jon Cody, Michael Maher, Ryan A Nasti, Colby G. Starker, James C Chamness, Daniel F. Voytas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


There is an expanding need to modify plant genomes to create new plant germplasm that advances both basic and applied plant research. Most current methods for plant genome modification involve regenerating plants from genetically modified cells in tissue culture, which is technically challenging, expensive and time consuming, and works with limited plant species or genotypes. Herein, we describe two Agrobacterium-based methods for creating genetic modifications on either sterilely grown or soil-grown Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These methods use developmental regulators (DRs), gene products that influence cell division and differentiation, to induce de novo meristems. Genome editing reagents, such as the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9, may be co-delivered with the DRs to create shoots that transmit edits to the next generation. One method, called fast-treated Agrobacterium co-culture (Fast-TrACC), delivers DRs to seedlings grown aseptically; meristems that produce shoots and ultimately whole plants are induced. The other approach, called direct delivery (DD), involves delivering DRs to soil-grown plants from which existing meristems have been removed; the DRs promote the formation of new shoots at the wound site. With either approach, if transgene cassettes and/or gene editing reagents are provided, these induced, de novo meristems may be transgenic, edited or both. These two methods offer alternative approaches for generating novel plant germplasm that are cheaper and less technically challenging and take less time than standard approaches. The whole procedure from transfer DNA (T-DNA) assembly to recovery of edited plants can be completed in ~70 d for both DD and Fast-TrACC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-107
Number of pages27
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J.P.C. was supported by an NSF postdoctoral fellowship in biology (grant no. 2010445). M.F.M. was funded from NIGMS T32-GM008347.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, Springer Nature Limited.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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