Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol, isolated from Ishige okamurae, increases prostaglandin E2 through the expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in HaCaT human keratinocytes

Gyeoung Jin Kang, Sang Chul Han, Young Sang Koh, Hee Kyoung Kang, You Jin Jeon, Eun Sook Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Prostaglandin (PG) E2, the most abundant prostaglandin in the human body, is synthesized from arachidonic acid via the actions of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. PGE2 exerts homeostatic, cytoprotective, inflammatory, and in some cases anti-inflammatory effects. Also, it has been reported that PGE2 is involved in hair growth. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) is a phlorotannin compound isolated from the brown algae Ishige okamurae, with various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the biological effect and mechanism of action of DPHC on prostaglandin synthesis in HaCaT human keratinocytes was examined. The results showed that, in these cells, DPHC significantly and dose-dependently induced PGE2 synthesis by increasing the protein and mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2. Interestingly, DPHC-induced COX-1 expression preceded that of COX-2. Also, while both rofecoxib and indomethacin inhibited PGE2 production, the latter was seems to be the more potent. From above results, we can expect that DPHC has some beneficial effects via increasing of PGE2 production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-525
Number of pages6
JournalBiomolecules and Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2012


  • Cyclooxygenases
  • Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol
  • HaCaT keratinocytes
  • Prostaglandin E


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