Glucose control continues to be challenging for intensivists, in particular in high-risk neonates. Many factors play a role in glucose regulation including intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Optimal targets for euglycemia are debatable with uncertain short and long-term effects. Glucose measurement technology has continued to advance over the past decade; unfortunately, the availability of these advanced devices outside of research continues to be problematic. Treatment approaches should be individualized depending on etiology, symptoms, and neonatal conditions. Glucose infusions should be titrated based upon variations in organ glucose uptake, co-morbidities and postnatal development. In this article we summarize the most common dilemmas encountered in the NICU: ranges for euglycemia, physiological differences, approach for glucose measurements, monitoring and best strategies to control parenteral glucose delivery.
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