Diffusion of dimethyl sulfoxide in tissue engineered collagen scaffolds visualized by computer tomography

Inga Bernemann, Navid Manuchehrabadi, Ralf Spindler, Jeunghwan Choi, Wim F. Wolkers, John C Bischof, Birgit Glasmacher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Cryopreservation is a convenient method for long-term preservation of natural and engineered tissues in regenerative medicine. Homogeneous loading of tissues with CPAs, however, forms one of the major hurdles in tissue cryopreservation. In this study, computer tomography (CT) as a non-invasive imaging method was used to determine the effective diffusion of Me2SO in tissue-engineered collagen scaffolds. The dimensions of the scaffolds were 30 × 30 × 10mm3 with a homogeneous pore size of 100 μm and a porosity of 98%. CT images were acquired after equilibrating the scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and transferring them directly in 10% (v/v) Me2SO. The Me2SO loading process of the scaffold could thus be measured and visualized in real time. The experimental data were fitted using a diffusion equation. The calculated effective diffusion constant for Me2SO in the PBS loaded scaffold was determined from experimental diffusion studies to be 2.4 × 10-6 cm2/s at 207deg;C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-503
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2010


  • Chemical loading
  • Collagen scaffolds
  • Computer tomography
  • CPA diffusion
  • Freezing of tissue engineered products
  • Visualization


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