Cyclin genes and their products are important regulatory participants in the eukaryotic cell cycle. It is well established that cyclin B1 protein forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which, when activated, initiates mitosis. We have previously established that cyclin B1 gene expression is posttranscriptionally regulated in regenerating rat liver after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). We now report further characterization of cyclin B1 gene expression, as well as that of CDK1 and cdc25B, in this unique in vivo model of cell proliferation. Cyclin B1 transcripts were detected by RNase protection through 96 h of liver regeneration and exhibited dramatic changes in steady-state levels. Peak expressions occurred at 2430 h, more significantly at 42-48, and at 72 h. By Northern blot analysis, single transcripts for CDK1 and cdc25B were detected, and the temporal expression of both transcripts during liver regeneration mirrored that of cyclin B1. By Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, cyclin B1 protein levels did not change significantly in either nuclear or cytoplasmic fractions, whereas CDK1 protein levels paralleled their associated RNA expression. Cdc25B protein levels steadily decreased from 0 to 96 h after PH. In addition, cytoplasmic protein levels of cyclin B1 exhibited a constant distribution in subfractions of microsome- and polysome-associated and free proteins. Cyclin B1 RNA also localized to these three cytoplasmic subfractions. Finally, the apparent translational activity of cyclin B1 transcripts was very similar at both 24 and 48 h after PH, in contrast to their respective mRNA half-lives. In a peroxisome proliferation model of hepatocyte growth and apoptosis, cyclin B1 and CDK1 proteins were induced in the absence of transcript up- regulation. Our results demonstrate that cyclin B1 mRNA steady-state levels are regulated posttranscriptionally in regenerating rat liver. Furthermore, the pattern of cyclin B1 transcript expression is paralleled by that of the CDK1 gene, whereas their respective protein steady-state levels provide a striking contrast. Finally, cyclin B1 is differentially regulated by an uncoupling of transcript abundance and translational processing in two in vivo models of hepatocyte growth. The abundance of cyclin B1 protein in nonreplicating cells suggests that cyclin B1 may be available for other cellular pathways in the hepatocyte.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Cell Growth and Differentiation|
|State||Published - 1996|