Four putative apyrase genes were identified from the model legume Medicago truncatula. Two of the genes identified from M. truncatula (Mtapyl and Mtapy4) are expressed in roots and are inducible within 3 h after inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti. The level of mRNA expression of the other two putative apyrases, Mtapy2 and Mtapy3, was unaffected by rhizobial inoculation. Screening of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of M. truncatula genomic DNA showed that Mtapy1, Mtapy3, and Mtapy4 are present on a single bacterial artificial chromosome clone. This apyrase cluster was mapped to linkage group seven. A syntenic region on soybean linkage group J was found to contain at least two apyrase genes. Screening of nodulation deficient mutants of M. truncatula revealed that two such mutants do not express apyrases to any detectable level. The data suggest a role for apyrases early in the nodulation response before the involvement of root cortical cell division leading to the nodule structure.