Reliable underwater acoustic (UWA) communications are challenging since the channels are well known to be doubly selective in both time and frequency domains. The doubly-selective fading UWA channels, however, also provide double diversity gains. In addition, multiple transducers and/or hydrophones are often deployed, providing space diversity to combat channel fading. To exploit all these diversities, a differential multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) scheme for doubly-selective fading channels is presented in this paper. The proposed differential orthogonal space-time block coding (DOSTBC) approach adopts the basis expansion model (BEM) to capture the channel variation in time domain. Both analytical and simulated results show that the proposed BEM-DOSTBC approach is reliable by collecting 3-D diversity: space, multipath, and Doppler. The proposed approach was tested during the RACE08 sea experiment and its reliability was confirmed by the experiment results.
- Basis expansion model
- space-time block coding (STBC)
- underwater acoustic communications