Background: Canine hip dysplasia (HD) is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA). The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever, Rottweiler, Border Collie and Bernese Mountain Dog). The linkage population included Labrador retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crosses. Of these, 366 dogs were genotyped at ~22,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and a targeted screen across 8 chromosomes with ~3,300 SNPs was performed on 551 dogs (196 dogs were common to both sets). A mixed linear model approach was used to perform an association study on this combined association and linkage population. The study identified 4 susceptibility SNPs associated with HD and 2 SNPs associated with hip OA. Conclusion/Significance: The identified SNPs included those near known genes (PTPRD, PARD3B, and COL15A1) reported to be associated with, or expressed in, OA in humans. This suggested that the canine model could provide a unique opportunity to identify genes underlying natural HD and hip OA, which are common and debilitating conditions in both dogs and humans.