Differential Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Regimens on Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE)

Jeffrey S. Gonzalez, Ionut Bebu, Heidi Krause-Steinrauf, Claire J. Hoogendoorn, Gladys Crespo-Ramos, Caroline Presley, Aanand D. Naik, Shihchen Kuo, Mary L. Johnson, Deborah Wexler, Jill P. Crandall, Anne E. Bantle, Valerie Arends, Andrea L. Cherrington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether adding basal insulin to metformin in adults with early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) would increase emotional distress relative to other treatments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE) of adults with T2DM of <10 years’ duration, HbA1c 6.8–8.5%, and taking metformin monotherapy randomly assigned participants to add insulin glargine U-100, sulfonylurea glimepiride, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglu-tide, or the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin. The Emotional Distress Sub-study enrolled 1,739 GRADE participants (mean [SD] age 58.0 [10.2] years, 32% female, 56% non-Hispanic White, 18% non-Hispanic Black, 17% Hispanic) and assessed diabetes distress and depressive symptoms every 6 months. Analyses examined differences at 1 year and over the 3-year follow-up. RESULTS Across treatments, diabetes distress (20.24, P < 0.0001) and depressive symptoms (20.67, P < 0.0001) decreased over 1 year. Diabetes distress was lower at 1 year for the glargine group than for the other groups combined (20.10, P = 0.002). Diabetes distress was also lower for liraglutide than for glimepiride or sitagliptin (20.10, P = 0.008). Over the 3-year follow-up, there were no significant group differences in total diabetes distress; interpersonal diabetes distress remained lower for those assigned to liraglutide. No significant differences were observed for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to expectations, this randomized trial found no evidence for a deleterious effect of basal insulin on emotional distress. Glargine lowered diabetes distress modestly at 1 year rather than increasing it. Liraglutide also reduced diabetes distress at 1 year. Results can inform treatment decisions for adults with early T2DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-619
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes care
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024, American Diabetes Association Inc.. All rights reserved.

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Differential Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Regimens on Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this