Sex differences exist in many phases of drug abuse, but few studies have focused on sex differences in drug abuse treatment. In this study, the effects of bremazocine, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, were compared in age-matched male and female rhesus monkeys self-administering orally delivered phencyclidine (PCP). Bremazocine (0.00032, 0.001, and 0.0025 mg/kg, intramuscular) was administered for 5 consecutive days, 15 min prior to daily 3-hr sessions when PCP (0.25 mg/ml) and water were available under concurrent fixed-ratio schedules. Bremazocine dose-dependently decreased PCP-maintained responding and consumption (mg/kg) in males and females, and these measures were suppressed at a lower bremazocine dose in females than in males. The percentage reduction in PCP-maintained responding and intake (mg/kg) was significantly greater in females than it was in males at the low and middle doses of bremazocine, suggesting that females may be more responsive to kappa agonist treatment than males.