Morselized impacted bone allograft is often used to reconstruct the bone bed in the revision of failed total joint arthroplasties. We hypothesized that addition of the bone morphogenetic protein OP-1 (BMP-7) to bone allograft would improve early implant fixation. We inserted one loaded 6-mm-diameter titanium implant (surrounded by 0.75-mm gap) in each medial condyle of 24 canines. On one side, the implant was inserted in a controlled experimental revision setting resembling the clinical revision situation. A primary implant was inserted on the contralateral side in a previously unoperated site. Three groups were studied: 1) allograft alone, 2) allograft + 0.4 mg OP-1, and 3) allograft + 0.8 mg OP-1. Implant fixation was evaluated at 4 weeks. Grafted implants inserted in the primary setting without OP-1 had better fixation than the grafted revision setting with or without OP-1 (significantly more bone coverage, more mineralized tissue in the gap, and better mechanical interface strength). However, grafted primary implants with OP-1 had impaired fixation compared with grafted primary implants without OP-1 (less bone coverage of the implant and less bone formation in the gap). In contrast, grafted revision implants with OP-1 significantly increased implant fixation compared with grafted revision implants without OP-1 (increased mechanical interface strength and fraction of mineralized tissue in the gap). We found no differences between the two doses in any of the settings. Addition of OP-1 to bone allografted implants may show benefit at sites with impaired bone healing capacities, such as the revision setting.
- Bone morphogenetic protein
- Experimental model
- Revision joint replacement
- Titanium plasma spray implant