Differences in whole-genome expression patterns between the classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 were determined under conditions that induce virulence gene expression in the classical biotype. A total of 524 genes (13.5% of the genome) were found to be differentially expressed in the two biotypes. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for biofilm formation, chemotaxis, and transport of amino acids, peptides, and iron was higher in the El Tor biotype. These gene expression differences may contribute to the enhanced survival capacity of the El Tor biotype in environmental reservoirs. The expression of genes encoding virulence factors was higher in the classical than in the El Tor biotype. In addition, the vieSAB genes, which were originally identified as regulators of ctxA transcription, were expressed at a fivefold higher level in the classical biotype. We determined the VieA regulon in both biotypes by transcriptome comparison of wild-type and vieA deletion mutant strains. VieA predominantly regulates gene expression in the classical biotype; 401 genes (10.3% of the genome), including those encoding proteins required for virulence, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and flagellum production as well as those regulated by σE, are differentially expressed in the classical vieA deletion mutant. In contrast, only five genes were regulated by VieA in the El Tor biotype. A large fraction (20.8%) of the genes that are differentially expressed in the classical versus the El Tor biotype are controlled by VieA in the classical biotype. Thus, VieA is a major regulator of genes in the classical biotype under virulence gene-inducing conditions.