Minimal data exist regarding the performance of Native Americans on standardized self-report personality instruments. In this study, the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was administered to a nonpsychiatric sample of 70 Native American adults and 100 White adults of equivalent age, educational background, and socioeconomic status. Native Americans scored significantly lower than the equivalent White sample on a number of CPI scales. These results appear to reflect primarily differences between Native American and White women, which may be a function of differences in acculturation and role expectations. Ethnicity appears to be an important factor in the production of differential response patterns on the CPI. The results suggest that Native Americans, particularly women, may be at a disadvantage when the CPI is used for selection purposes unless their responses are compared to cultural norms.