We tested whether rat and human MPO have similar antigenic determinants using 36 human MPO-ANCA positive sera, one mouse anti-rat MPO and four mouse anti-human MPO monoclonal reagents. Purified rat and human MPO were used in ELISA, with or without crossinhibition by preincubation with human MPO or irrelevant antigen in the liquid phase. Only one human MPO ANCA positive serum exhibited significant binding in rat MPO ELISA. This binding was poorly inhibited by preincubation with human MPO in the liquid phase, but was conserved after adsorption of non specific anti-rat activity in a chromatography column. Three mouse anti-human MPO IgG monoclonal antibodies did not recognize rat MPO. Only one mouse anti-human MPO IgA monoclonal antibody bound to rat MPO. This binding was poorly inhibited by preincubation with human MPO (35% at 2 μg/ml). Conversely, the mouse anti-rat MPO monoclonal did not bind human MPO. We have concluded that: (1) Most human MPO-ANCA recognize antigenic determinants on human MPO which are absent on rat MPO. Therefore, human auto-antibodies bind to epitopes which recently appeared after species evolution; (2) Inversely, the mouse anti-rat MPO monoclonal do not bind human MPO. Therefore, rat MPO epitopes have been altered during species evolution; (3) Mice injected with human MPO preferentially develop antibodies against xeno-epitopes which are not present in rodents. Therefore, human MPO may not be the best antigen to raise ANCA in animal models and (4) A comparison of the amino acid sequences of rat and human MPO may help elucidate the major antigenic epitopes.
- Monoclonal antibody
- Species evolution