PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the effect of very-low-, low-, and high-protein diets on outcomes related to chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and bone health in patients with CKD.
RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary protein restriction in the form of low- and very-low-protein diets have been used to slow down the progression of CKD. These diets can be supplemented with alpha-keto acid (KA) analogues of amino acids. Observational and randomized controlled trials have shown improvements in biochemical markers of CKD-MBD, including reductions in phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor-23. However, few studies have assessed changes in bone quantity and quality. Furthermore, studies assessing the effects of high-protein diets on CKD-MBD are scarce. Importantly, very-low- and low-protein diets supplemented with KA provide supplemental calcium in amounts that surpass current dietary recommendations, but to date there are no studies on calcium balance with KA. Current evidence suggests that dietary protein restriction in CKD may slow disease progression, which may subsequently benefit CKD-MBD and bone health outcomes. However, prospective randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of modulating dietary protein and supplementing with KA on all aspects of CKD-MBD and particularly bone health are needed.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article