Dietary patterns and associations with body mass index in low-income, ethnic minority youth in the United States according to baseline data from four randomized controlled trials

Madison N. Lecroy, Holly L. Nicastro, Kimberly P. Truesdale, Donna M. Matheson, Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis, Charlotte A. Pratt, Sarah Jones, Nancy E. Sherwood, Laura E. Burgess, Thomas N. Robinson, Song Yang, June Stevens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the United States (US). This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (N=534; 2-4-year-olds), GROW (N=610; 3-5-year-olds), GOALS (N=241; 7-11-year-olds), and IMPACT (N=360; 10-13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed 3 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from 24 food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savory snacks, and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy and sugar-sweetened beverage based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese, and miscellaneous [e.g., condiments]) compared to Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI [β=0.99 (95% CI: 0.01, 1.97)] and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile [β=4.17 (95% CI: 0.11, 8.24)]. Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity, or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • BMI
  • KEYWORDS:
  • cluster analysis
  • dietary patterns
  • ethnic minority
  • youth

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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