Intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which locate at the base of intestinal crypts, are key determinants of governing proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal epithelium. The surrounding cells of ISCs and their related growth factors form ISC niche, supporting ISC function and self-renewal. ISC has an underappreciated but emerging role as a sensor of dietary nutrients, which fate decisions is adjusted in response to nutritional states to regulate gut homeostasis. Here, we review endogenous and exogenous factors, such as caloric restriction, fasting, fat, glucose and trace element. They instruct ISCs via mTORC1, PPAR/CPT1α, PPARγ/β-catenin, Wnt/GSK-3β pathway, respectively, jointly affect intestinal homeostasis. These dietary responses regulate ISC regenerative capacity and may be a potential target for cancer prevention. However, without precise definitions of nutrition intervene, it will be difficult to generate sufficient data to extending our knowledge of the biological response of ISC on nutrients. More accurately modeling organoids or high-throughput automated organoid culture in microcavity arrays have provided unprecedented opportunities for modeling diet-host interactions. These major advances collectively provide new insights into nutritional regulation of ISC proliferation and differentiation and drive us ever closer to breakthroughs for regenerative medicine and disease treatment by nutrition intervention in the clinic.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- dietary therapy
- gut homeostasis
- Intestinal stem cells (ISCs)
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article