Dietary intake, D3Cr muscle mass, and appendicular lean mass in a cohort of older men

Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Research Group

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10 Scopus citations


Background: We examined cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns, macronutrient intake, and measures of muscle mass and lean mass in older men. Methods: Participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort (n = 903; mean ± SD age 84.2 ± 4 years) completed brief Block food frequency questionnaires (May 2014–May 2016); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. The D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution method was used to measure muscle mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure appendicular lean mass (ALM). Generalized linear models were used to report adjusted means of outcomes by dietary pattern. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine associations between macronutrients and D3Cr muscle mass and DXA ALM. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, clinic site, education, depression, total energy intake, height, and percent body fat. Results: Greater adherence to a Western dietary pattern (high factor loadings for red meat, fried foods, and high-fat dairy) was associated with higher D3Cr muscle mass (p-trend = .026). Adherence to the Healthy dietary pattern (high factor loadings for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats) was not associated with D3Cr muscle mass or DXA ALM. Total protein (β = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.14) and nondairy animal protein (β = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.21) were positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass. Nondairy animal protein (β = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.11) was positively associated with DXA ALM. Associations with other macronutrients were inconsistent. Conclusions: Nondairy animal protein intake (within a Western dietary pattern and alone) was positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass in older men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1353-1361
Number of pages9
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jun 18 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) (grant numbers U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128). Funding for the D3Cr muscle mass measure was provided by NIAMS (grant number R01 AR065268). GlaxoSmithKline provided in-kind support by providing the d3creatine dose and analysis of urine samples.

Funding Information:
P.M.C. has institutional research grants from Abbott Nutrition and Nestle. L.L. has institutional research grants from Abbott Nutrition. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


  • Epidemiology
  • Nutrition
  • Sarcopenia

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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